Symptomatic diabetes review

【云百草组方】

Cordyceps powder + Bailanshi capsule + Xiangxue tablets

[方解]

[ Cordyceps powder raw materials ]

Paecilomyces bat, bat moth, locust, etc.

[ Bai Lanshi Capsule, Xiangxue Tablets, Raw Materials]

Mushroom, yacon, hazelnut, bitter gourd, guava, water chestnut, lotus leaf, puerarin, fungus, lily

[Documentation] (to June 2019, HowNet)

[Chongcao Diabetes] 309 articles

(See Scientific literature review, Scientific literature Diabetes)

[Champignon Diabetes] 36 [Syringe Diabetes] 31 [Scorpion Diabetes] 117 [Bitter Melon Diabetes] 586 [Guava Diabetes] 155 [Plumbing Diabetes] 1 [Holly Leaf Diabetes] 19 [Gegen Diabetes] 1623 [Auricular Diabetes] 62 [Lily Diabetes] 35

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[Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015]

[Cordyceps sinensis] [Pharmacology] Cordyceps or Cordyceps water extract can increase fasting blood glucose in male mice, but has no significant effect on blood glucose in saturated mice or female mice; water extract can significantly reduce mouse serum TC, subcutaneous injection of alcohol extract can significantly reduce serum TC and TG levels in hyperlipidemia mice, and also reduce serum TC and β lipoprotein in normal mice, but subcutaneous water extract is ineffective; water extract can be in vitro Promote rat red blood cell glycolysis pathway to produce ATP; promote rat hepatocyte adenylate kinase (ADK) activity, catalyze the conversion of ADP to ATP and AMP; activate mouse muscle cytosolic CPK activity, so that ADP receives CP energy to generate ATP. Cordyceps sinensis extract can decrease serum TC and TG, increase HDL-c, and decrease LDL-c and VLDL-c in normal rats. The possible mechanisms are: 1 inhibit liver cholesterol synthesis; 2 enhance lipoprotein esterase activity in vivo. The TG decomposition is increased and the serum TG is lowered.

[Champignon Diabetes] [Functions and Indications] Fuzheng, Yiqi appetizer, rash, phlegm, anti-cancer. Indications of righteous weakness, distress, fatigue, poor appetite, indigestion, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal discomfort, anemia, rickets, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic hepatitis, night sweats, urinary incontinence, edema, measles, poor dialysis, respect Measles, poisonous mushroom poisoning, tumor. "The original experience of the original": "Dayi stomach." "Materia Medica": "Daeng Yiwei help food and urinating can not help." "Materia Medica seeks the original": "Drug heat and swelling." ": "The treatment of turbidity can not help." "National Chinese Herbal Medicine Compilation": "Regular consumption can prevent rickets, prevent inflammation of various mucous membranes and skin, prevent physical weakness, rupture of capillaries, gums and abdominal bleeding."

[Dice Diabetes] [Pharmacology] (3) Promote pancreatic secretion and influence on pancreatic function: Dusteria has a significant effect on reducing pancreatic amylase, and its enzymatic hydrolysate is the most effective effect of scorpionin on pancreatic duct flow. Strong and short duration. Scorpion can improve the body's disease resistance during pancreatitis, reduce the degree of pancreatic inflammation and stabilize the acinar cell membrane during pancreatitis. Scorpion can increase succinate dehydrogenase in rat pancreatic cells, which is significantly reduced in acute pancreatitis, and the elevated acid phosphatase release rate is significantly reduced, and intracellular cytochrome P450 is increased. Enhances the disease resistance of pancreatic gland cells during pancreatitis. [Indications] "Pharmacology": "Insecticide, go to the hot poisonous wind, Li Wulin, the main evil, pass the urine, solve the five kinds of yellow disease, eyesight, cure the disease, remove heat and thirst , the eye is swollen (pain)."

[Bitter gourd diabetes] [Pharmacology] 1. Hypoglycemic effect: Oral starvation mice oral Bitter melon aqueous extract 4g / kg can improve the tolerance to glucose, significantly reduce the blood glucose of mice after oral and intraperitoneal injection of glucose. Bitter gourd aqueous extract can promote insulin release from isolated islets in vitro. The bitter melon freeze-dried powder (20 g/kg and 40 g/kg) has significant hypoglycemic effect on drug-induced hyperglycemic mice, and has no effect on blood glucose in normal mice. The oral LD50 of the bitter melon freeze-dried powder is 704.8g/kg, and the dose of hypoglycemic effect is only 1/35~1/17 of its LD50. The water extract of immature fruit of bitter gourd can strongly stimulate the release of insulin from isolated islet B cells in obese hyperglycemic mice. This stimulation is partially reversible. Bitter melon juice can increase glucose uptake in rat tissues in vitro and does not increase tissue respiration. Oral bitter gourd juice before glucose load can increase liver and muscle glycogen content in rats. The unheated direct-pressed fruit juice of bitter gourd has better hypoglycemic effect than the effective part extracted by other methods, and it is inferred that the blood sugar-lowering active ingredient may be a water-soluble heat-susceptible component. P, F1 and F2 were further isolated from the acidic ethanol extract of bitter gourd fruit. The P part of the fruit had anti-lipid decomposition and stimulated glucose ginseng lipids in hamster fat cells, and the F1 part containing saponin inhibited fat. Decomposition and glucose ginseng lipids, F2 part increases glucose ginseng lipids. It is suggested that there is a compound that mimics the action of insulin in the fruit of bitter gourd. A hypoglycemic peptide was isolated from the fruit of bitter gourd, with a minimum molecular weight of about 11,000 (166 residues). Subcutaneous injection has significant hypoglycemic effects on animals and humans. [Indications] Heat and heat, eyesight, detoxification. Indications for heat and polydipsia, thirst, red eye pain, dysentery, sores and swollen poison. "Minnan Materia Medica": "Spoke six classics fire, clear heat and qi, stop polydipsia." "Shengshengbian": "except evil heat, relieve fatigue, clear heart and eyesight." (quoted from "the program")

[Guava Diabetes] Guava Leaf, [Pharmacology] 1. Hypoglycemic effect: The total flavonoid glycoside and pure monoflavonoid glycoside proposed by guava leaves have a significant hypoglycemic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The sugar rate was 30% at 2 hours after administration, 46% at 4 hours, and 57% at 6 hours. Total flavonoid glycosides also have hypoglycemic effects in normal rats, but not as much as hypoglycemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Pure mono-flavonoid glycosides can significantly promote the binding of insulin to receptors. Therefore, in addition to improving the utilization of glucose by surrounding tissues, the principle of hypoglycemic in guava leaves may directly promote the combination of insulin and its specific receptors. The sensitivity of insulin in the body.

Guava fruit, [Pharmacology] 1. Hypoglycemic effect Rabbits fed 25g/kg guava juice will reduce the blood sugar level of normal rabbits by 19%, while diabetic rabbits will decrease by 25%. The efficacy is 4h after taking the medicine. The highest, restore the original blood within 24h

Sugar value mouth.

Guava root, [functions and indications] to stop diarrhea, pain relief and sore. Indications of diarrhea, abdominal pain, rectal prolapse, toothache, diabetes, sores, snake bites. "Taiwan Medicinal Plants": "Stomach disease, abdominal pain." "Diabetes, yang."

[Lotus Leaf Diabetes] [Indications] Clearing heat, heat, and stop bleeding. Indications for heat and polydipsia, headache, dizziness, spleen and bloating, stool diarrhea, vomiting blood, postpartum lochia is not clean, red swim Hudan. "Japanese Huazi": "Thirst quenching, falling cells, killing scorpion venom, and dry mouth after delivery, heart and lung dry, bored." "This herbal medicine Daquan: "breaking blood and quenching thirst, in addition to annoying hemostasis, acne lower fetus, clear Shaoyang fever, spleen and stomach, eliminate edema, and fix the fetus."

[Gegen Diabetes] [Pharmacology] 3. Effect on diabetes and its complications: Puerarin sputum reduces the blood glucose and serum fructosamine levels in diabetic rats, and reduces the formation of aortic glycation end products and their receptor expression. Intraperitoneal injection of puerarin has an anti-peroxide nitroso anion-mediated oxidative stress injury in diabetic cataract rats. Intraperitoneal injection of puerarin improved renal function, increased expression of glomerular matrix metalloproteinase-2 mRNA and protein, and decreased expression of type IV collagen and laminin. Pueraria lobata extract improved the insulin resistance of rats induced by dexamethasone, decreased the glucose level in insulin resistant 3T3 L1 adipocyte culture medium, and enhanced the sensitivity of cells to insulin. [Indications] Dispelling muscles, thirst, and diarrhea. Indications of exogenous fever, head pain, measles, rash, poor temperature, thirst, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery. "The Scriptures": "The main thirst, body heat, vomiting, Zhu Yu, yin, and all kinds of poison." "Do not record": "rooting juice, treatment of thirst, typhoid fever." "Pharmacology" : "Can cure the heavens, vomiting, appetizing, eating, the main hangover, stop the polydipsia." "Medical Qiyuan" "The Secret of the Angels" cloud, its use four: quench the thirst; Second, the divergence of the evil spirits; the divergent pediatric sores are difficult to come out."

[Auricularia alopecia] [Pharmacology] 8. Hypoglycemic effect: Auricularia polysaccharide 33 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg can significantly reduce the blood glucose level of alloxan diabetic mice, and the most hypoglycemic effect after oral administration of polysaccharide for 4-7 hours Significant; can also reduce the amount of water in diabetic mice.

[Lily Diabetes] [Pharmacology] 5. Hypoglycemic effect: Lily polysaccharide monomer LP1, LP2 give high-oxygenemia to alloxan at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively.

Rats have obvious hypoglycemic function, and hypoglycemic effect is positively correlated with polysaccharide concentration. [Indications] Yangyin Runfei, clear heart and soothe the nerves. "Extracted from the Golden Herbs": "Treatment of thirst."

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[diabetes brief]

(i) Definition

Diabetes mellitus is a group of syndromes characterized by long-term hyperglycemia due to metabolic disorders such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins caused by defects in insulin secretion and action.

(2) Classification

1. Type 1 Diabetes Originally known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the autoimmune injury of insulin secreting from the pancreas caused an absolute lack of insulin secretion. The onset is more urgent, more symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, more food, weight loss, etc., more obvious symptoms, genetic predisposition, more incidence of children.

2, type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in middle-aged and elderly people, slow onset, insidious, often obese, especially abdominal obesity or overweight, can ask about the unreasonable lifestyle, such as diet for high fat, high carbon hydration and , high energy and less activity. Mainly due to insufficient insulin secretion (ie, islet dysfunction) and insulin resistance (ie, reduced insulin effect).

3, pregnancy urinary urinary disease usually occurs in the late pregnancy after the occurrence of pregnancy. The incidence is related to excessive eating during pregnancy and the effect of hormones secreted by the placenta on insulin resistance. Most patients return to normal after delivery, but become a high-risk group for diabetes in the future.

4. Other types of diabetes refer to certain endocrine diseases, chemicals, infections and other rare genetic and immune syndromes.

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【Diabetes Clinical manifestations and complications】

(1) Clinical manifestations

Typical symptoms of diabetes are polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, and fatigue. The labor force is sharply reduced, and the spirit is weak. Type 1 diabetes often has this typical symptom. However, more than half of type 2 diabetes, the symptoms are not obvious, especially in middle-aged overweight or obese, mostly light patients, mostly with some complications or accompanying symptoms, or detected in a health checkup.

(ii) Complications or concomitant conditions

1, infection Skin infections are more common, severe cases can lead to systemic sepsis, easy to concurrent tuberculosis, the most common tuberculosis.

2, acute complications of diabetes

(1) diabetic ketoacidosis: patients with hyperglycemia, dehydration, deep and fast breathing, exhaled gas with rotten apple flavor, lower blood pressure, severe coma, life-threatening, type 1 diabetes patients are prone to occur.

(2) Diabetic non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma: mostly occurs in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. There are many causes of the disease, such as infection, binge drinking (high sugar drinks and wine) overeating, stress (trauma, surgery, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases), a variety of drugs, such as adrenocortical hormone, diuretics that raise blood sugar Or enter too much glucose, accompanied by endocrine diseases such as hyperthyroidism, hyperlipidemia and pheochromocytoma. Other factors that can cause dehydration, dehydration, or renal insufficiency can cause hypertonic conditions. The early symptoms were not obvious. Afterwards, the symptoms of "three more" gradually worsened, and the expression was indifferent to the expression; the symptoms were obvious at the later stage, which showed severe dehydration, epileptic seizures, unconsciousness, lethargy and coma. Diabetes mellitus has a high mortality rate of non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma and should be highly valued.

(3) Diabetes lactic acidosis: It is rare for blood pH to drop due to elevated blood lactic acid.

But the mortality rate is high.

(4) Hypoglycemia: Diabetic patients may have hypoglycemia during treatment due to hypoglycemic drugs (insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents are too large), the time and amount of medication are not compatible with the meal time, the activity is too large and fasting drinking Wait. Typical symptoms are: cold sweat, fatigue, hunger, dizziness, palpitations, rapid heartbeat, hand tremors, numbness or tingling in the hands, feet, and lips, blurred vision, pale, cold limbs, decreased blood pressure, lethargy, confusion, and even coma . Treatment is rapid oral or injection of glucose, glucagon, oral sugary foods.

3, cardiovascular disease

(1) Heart disease: including coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris) and diabetic cardiomyopathy, the latter can also be caused by microvascular disease.

(2) cerebrovascular accidents: including cerebral infarction (ischemic) and cerebral hemorrhage, hemiplegia may occur. The incidence of cerebral hemorrhage in diabetic patients is similar to that in non-diabetics, and the incidence of cerebral infarction is 4 times that of non-diabetic patients.

(3) Lower extremity vascular disease: The macrovascular disease of diabetes also manifests as peripheral vascular disease, which occurs in the lower limbs. When the neuropathy is combined, it is easy to cause infection, leading to gangrene or ulceration of the lower extremities (diabetic foot), which is non-invasive. The main reason for amputation.

4, microvascular disease

(1) Diabetic nephropathy

(2) Diabetic eye disease: including 1 diabetic retinopathy, mainly changed to microaneurysm, bleeding point, exudation, and then the formation of fundus neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, and finally lead to fiber proliferation, retinal detachment after contraction. 2 cataract, due to crystal turbidity, on the one hand, the incidence of senile cataract in diabetic patients is high, the incidence is advanced; on the other hand, patients of all ages may also develop true diabetic cataract, the latter develops rapidly. Diabetic retinopathy and cataract are one of the most important causes of non-traumatic blindness.

5, neuropathy can involve the peripheral nerves and central nervous system, will affect the movement, sensation and autonomic nerves, showing the corresponding symptoms.

6, diabetes associated with: including hypertension, dyslipidemia, skin lesions, osteoarthrosis and sexual dysfunction, etc., these conditions are closely related to metabolic disorders of diabetes, vascular lesions and neuropathy.

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[hypoglycemic agents, adverse reactions, contraindications]

The hypoglycemic agents are classified into oral hypoglycemic agents and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and insulin using an injection.

According to the route of action, oral hypoglycemic drugs can be divided into two categories:

※ By promoting insulin secretion to achieve hypoglycemic effect, patients need certain islet function;

※ Non-insulin dependent secretion