General Cordyceps Symposium--Discussion on the Classification System of Paecilomyces palustris and the Geographical System of Cordyceps sinensis


Figure 1. State Key Laboratory of Yunnan Bioresources and Utilization, Donglu Campus, Yunnan University, November 23, 2018
Group photo of all members of the General Cordyceps Symposium
 

From November 22nd to 23rd, 2018, the Cordyceps Research Team of the School of Life Sciences of Yunnan University hosted the General Cordyceps Symposium - Bat Moth in the conference room on the fifth floor of the Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Biological Resources and Utilization, Donglu Campus, Yunnan University. A study on the classification system of Paecilomyces sinensis and the lineage of Cordyceps militaris in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

The main guests invited by this conference came from 11 different universities and research institutes in China. At the same time, the teachers and students of the biology field of Yunnan University actively participated, and the meeting was intense and enthusiastic.

The Cordyceps research team of the School of Life Sciences of Yunnan University, using a combination of morphology and molecular systematics, has found more than 350 species of Cordyceps in China and Southeast Asian countries for nearly 20 years. More than 18,000 Cordyceps specimens have been produced, and more than 7,000 strains have been isolated. Built the world's largest Cordyceps Museum.


Figure 2. Herbal Cordyceps Museum

Conference topics 1. Position of Paecilomyces palustris classification system

Paecilomyces hepiali Q.T. Chen & R.Q. Dai ex R.Q. Dai et al. was the Chinese Medicine Institute of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. In 1982, a fungus was isolated from Cordyceps sinensis collected from Baima Snow Mountain, Deqin County, Yunnan Province. In the traditional sense, Paecilomyces militaris is actually a broad-based Paecilomyces sensu lato, which is based on Paecilomyces genus, and its classification position belongs to the pending taxonomic unit. According to modern taxonomy, Paecilomyces has been an invalid generic name. In layman's terms, Paecilomyces batii belongs to the "black household."


Figure 3. Morphology and microscopic characteristics of Paecilomyces palustris strains

The main components and pharmacological effects of Paecilomyces palustris are similar to those of natural Cordyceps sinensis. In 1993, they applied for national patents. The relevant personnel of the Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences isolated the strain of Paecilomyces palustris Cs-4 from Qinghai Hualong, and developed Jinshuibao Capsule. In 1987, it was approved as a new class of Chinese medicine, clinically used for lung and kidney deficiency. Insufficient essence, long-term cough and asthma, Shenpi fatigue, no forgetfulness, forgetfulness, weak waist, irregular menstruation, impotence and premature ejaculation; chronic bronchitis, chronic renal insufficiency, hyperlipidemia, cirrhosis, etc.; Minc Trust Group produces fermented production. In 2017, Jinshuibao's annual output value reached 10 billion yuan. The re-determination of the location of the classification system for such important economically valuable species will facilitate the sustainable further development and utilization of Paecilomyces bat.

Previous studies have suggested that Paecilomyces palustris and P. sinensis have high similarity in morphological structure and molecular sequence, and they have been considered to be synonymous. Dai Ruqin et al. describe the new species of Paecilomyces palustris, which is considered to be close to the spore size of the spores, but the morphology of the bottle stems on the conidiophores and the morphology of the bottle stems and the morphology of the conidia do not. As a species with great economic value, it should be more cautious when determining the location of the system.

In response to the above issues, the expert group and participants of the meeting held discussions. The main topics and preliminary conclusions are as follows:

After discussion by the expert group, it was confirmed that Paecilomyces palustris is not the same species as Isaria farinosa. It is recommended to incorporate Paecilomyces batii and its related species into the genus Samsoniella, and rename Paecilomyces palustris to Samsoniella hepiali. And it is recommended to change its Chinese name to bat moth, and publish it when appropriate. The genus Paecilomyces pallidum is widely found in nature and exhibits an extremely broad niche and strong adaptability. Detailed morphological structure description and molecular identification should be carried out for the relative species of Paecilomyces batii in the phylogenetic tree. The determination of the classification position of Paecilomyces bats will certainly facilitate sustainable development and utilization. For example, the comparison of the genome, transcriptome, and metabolome of Paecilomyces palustris and Cordyceps sinensis will reveal the metabolic pathways and mechanisms of action of similar components of Paecilomyces palustris and Cordyceps sinensis. At the same time, the comparative genomics and transcriptomics research of Paecilomyces palustris and its related species will open up a broader application prospect for the development of Paecilomyces pallidum and its new resources and new functions.

Session 2: Cordyceps militaris species diversity and its pedigree geography in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau


Figure 5. Geographical location of the Tibetan Plateau and geographical distribution of Cordyceps sinensis

The geology of the Tertiary Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau experienced many uplifting geology, and the repeated gyrations of the Quaternary experienced glacial and interglacial periods, which made the species in the area form its own unique fauna and evolutionary features. Species evolution and fauna differentiation are closely related to the evolutionary mechanisms of the species itself, paleogeography and climate. Cordyceps sinensis and its closely related Cordyceps species, is the multi-line origin independent evolution to form species diversity or single-unit single ancestral origin? How does it migrate and evolve under the special geological environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau? At the same time, in the process of diversity evolution, what behaviors (including host transfer) and physiological factors change to adapt to the geological climate changes?


Figure 6. Meeting of the General Cordyceps Symposium


Figure 7. Dr. Dai Yongdong's report on the geography of Cordyceps militaris in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

In response to the above scientific issues, the expert group and participants of the meeting conducted reports and discussions. The main topics and preliminary conclusions are as follows:

(1) Species diversity of Cordyceps militaris in the Tibetan Plateau


Figure 8. Geographical distribution of Cordyceps militaris in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

A total of 13 species of nematodes were investigated systematically in the Cordyceps sinensis and related species of Cordyceps militaris, except for the five previously reported (Ophiocordyceps sinensis, O. lanpingensis, O. emeiensis, Kuriji). O. kurijimeaensis and O. laojunshanensis, also found 7 new species (O. albastromata, O. alpina, O. alpina, O. amara, O. bambusicola) , Cordyceps King O.megala, O. fusca and O. nigristromata, and a new combination of O. liangshanensis. The characteristics of Cordyceps militaris in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were initially revealed.


Figure 9. Professor Liang Zongqi speaks at the meeting

(2) The formation of pedigree structure of Cordyceps sinensis and its related species


Figure 10. Developmental structure of 13 species of nematodes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Based on multi-gene phylogeny (SSU, LSU, tef-1α, rpb1 and rpb2), the taxonomic status and developmental relationships of 12 species of C. elegans were identified (O.kurijimeaensis has not obtained polygenic data). In addition to E. elegans, 11 other species were clustered into the same branch, which was defined as the QTP Core Clade, the core group of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In the Clade, there are also six species of nematodes distributed on the non-Tibet Plateau: O. macrocaicularis (Japan), O. xuefengensis (Snow Mountain, Hunan, China), O. illustris (West Africa and South Africa), O. robertsii (Australia and New Zealand), karst nematode O.karstii (Chishui, Guizhou, China) and O.wenshanensis (Wenshan, Yunnan, China).


Figure 11. Professor Yu Hong speaks at the meeting

(3) Discussion on the origin of Cordyceps sinensis and its related species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

The reconstruction of the ancestral distribution area based on S-DIVE shows that the southern part of Hengduan Mountain is the QTP Core Clade origin center. During the Eocene period, from the middle-low temperature of the southern part of the Hengduan Mountains in the Eocene, with the geological uplift and climate change, the local differentiation and formation of the diversity center, mainly for the temperate-subtropical climate type. Later, due to the geological uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Movement, the land mass moved, the differences between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the surrounding altitude and climate temperature increased, which provided rich geographical and ecological climate conditions for the diversity and differentiation of the Cordyceps militaris species, and the diversification process occurred. It is accompanied by the geological uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to the high altitude and surrounding areas. After long-term selection and adaptation, O.karstii, O.wenshanensis, O.illustris, O.xuefengensis, O.macroacicularis and O.robertsii are formed into special groups outside the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


Figure 12. Speculation of the propagation of species in the core group of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

In the Late Miocene (~6 Ma), Cordyceps sinensis originated from the southern part of ancient Tibet and the vast area of northwestern Yunnan. Later, it was affected by the plateau uplift and spread to the plateau, and gradually evolved into a unique group of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau that is suitable for low-temperature climate.


Figure 13. Possible path for the spread of Cordyceps sinensis

(4) Association between the formation and differentiation of Cordyceps sinensis and its related species and paleo-geological events in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau


Figure 14. Correlation between Cordyceps species differentiation and geological and historical events in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Using fossils as time checkpoints, using the loose molecular clock model to estimate the differentiation time of Cordyceps militaris and its host group, the time of occurrence of the 7th differentiation of the main branch of Cordyceps militaris and the second uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau The time is the same. It is suggested that the species differentiation of Cordyceps militaris in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a strong correlation with the Oligocene-Miocene (25-17 Ma) geological uplift in this area.


Figure 15. Correlation between the differentiation of Cordyceps sinensis and the geological uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

(5) Geographical structure of Cordyceps sinensis


Figure 16. Geographical distribution of the genetic structure of Cordyceps sinensis

Based on the large-scale samples (96 populations of 948 samples) ITS sequences to explore the genetic diversity and lineage geographic structure of Cordyceps sinensis, 111 haplotypes were obtained, and the more accurate genetic diversity and differentiation characteristics of Cordyceps sinensis were obtained, revealing that Cordyceps sinensis could form. 8 stable phylogenetic branches with at least 3 geographically distributed samples. At the same time, it was found that the northwestern part of Yunnan and southern Tibet were the genetic diversity and differentiation centers of Cordyceps sinensis.


Figure 17. Researcher Liu Xingzhong, researcher Yang Zhuliang, researcher Han Richou and researcher Zhao Yongchang spoke at the meeting


Figure 18. Professor Hu Xianqi, Professor Zhang Keqin and Professor Zou Chenggang speak at the meeting

This meeting, through the analysis and discussion of the location of the classification system of Paecilomyces palustris, proposed to incorporate Paecilomyces palustris into the genus Samsoniella. This is beneficial to the sustainable development and utilization of Paecilomyces palustris, which has important medicinal value. Through the multidisciplinary in-depth analysis and discussion of the Cordyceps militaris group on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the meeting fully understands the species diversity and differentiation pattern of Cordyceps sinensis and its related species under the complex geological and climatic conditions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is helpful in the multidisciplinary background. Comprehensive and comprehensive analysis of the formation and evolution of Cordyceps militaris species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.