Investigation on Cordyceps Biological Resources in Dashao Township, Yuming County, Kunming City

Figure 1. Professor Xi's Cordyceps research team under the Huashan Pine Forest

Figure 2. Professor Wu's Cordyceps research team works under the Huashan Pine Forest

From March 2018 to August 2018, the International Joint Research Center for the Sustainable Utilization of Cordyceps Biological Resources of the University of Yunnan, organized by Tatiana Sanjuan, Research Fellow, Rajamangala University of Technology, Antioquia University (Columbia, Thailand): Dr. Preeyanat Hongthong, Dr. Pacharathon Simking, Dr. Surachai Techaoei, Dr. Wang Li from Shandong Agricultural University, Professor Chen of the University of Yunnan, Chen Siqi, Ma Yufeng, Tang Dexiang, Fan Qi, Zhao Zhiyuan, Zhang Xiaomei, Xu Zhihong, Ma Xuanyan and Lian Tenghe More than 20 person-times, in the Kunming Yuming County whistle many times conducted wild cordyceps resources survey. The investigation collected the whole developmental stage of the high-grade Cordyceps militaris and was used for the developmental biology of the high-grade Cordyceps

Yuming County is located in the central part of Yunnan Province and northeast of Kunming City. It is located at 25°05′~25°28′ north latitude and 102°40′~103°20′ east longitude. It is a suburban county under the jurisdiction of Kunming City. It is Sanjiang (Panlongjiang). The source of Niulanjiang and Nanpanjiang is 34 kilometers away from Kunming. Yuming County is located inland, and the climate is typical of temperate zone, warm temperate zone and north subtropical mixed climate. The annual average temperature is about 14 °C, the annual average rainfall is 1000-1400 mm. Yuming County is located in the western edge of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. There are few mountains and more land. The terrain slopes from the northwest to the southeast. The mountains and rivers are distributed in the north-south direction, which is the mountain valley of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The main peak of Liangwang Mountain in the north is 2,840 meters above sea level, which is the highest point in the country. The annual average water resources are 680 million cubic meters, which is the source of Panlong River and Niulan River. Due to its special geographical location, climatic conditions and vegetation types, the biodiversity of Yuming County is not high.

A number of species of Cordyceps, involving 3 families, 3 genera and 5 species, a total of 55 material specimens, identified two species are Polycephalomyces Polymorphomyces, of which the dominant family is Ophiocordycipitaceae, the dominant genus Ophiocordyceps, dominant species It is the highland nematode Ophiocordyceps highlandensis, and its host is the coleoptera Coleoptera genus Scarabaeoidea larvae.

The findings are as follows:
1 Cordyceps Ophiocordycipitaceae
1.1 Cordyceps Ophiocordyceps
1.1.1 Plateau Cordyceps Ophiocordyceps highlandensis
Host: Scarabeoidea larvae
Habitat: Under Pinus armandii, the sclerotia is buried in the surface, and some are in the roots of Pinus armandii.
Distribution: Dashao Township, Yuming County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province

The sample collected in the six periods is as follows:
(1) live insect stage
The larvae of Scarabaeoidea are buried in 5-10 cm of soil from the surface.

(2) Zombie stage
The worm is buried in the soil 2-4cm, golden yellow worm body.

(3) Initial stage of the sub-seat
The sub-seat is out, the top is sharp and thick.

(4) Ascospore maturity
The ascus is full and distinct, black seat.

(5) Decay period
The seat is black and brittle, and the spores are ejected.

(6) Polymorphic parasitic
The sclerotia rots and there are many molds on the pedestal.

2 Cordycepsaceae Cordycipitaceae
2.1 Cordyceps Cordyceps
2.1.1 Cordyceps militaris
Host: Lepidoptera
Habitat: Under the Huashan Pine Forest

2.1.2 Cordyceps Cordyceps scarabaeicola
Host: A scarab
Habitat: Under the Huashan Pine Forest

3 Polycephalum Polycephlomycetaceae
3.1 Polycephalum 01 01 Polycephalomyces sp.01
Host: Plateau Cordyceps
Habitat: on the plateau nematodes under the Huashan pine forest

3.2 Polymyxa 02 Polycephalomyces sp.02
Host: Plateau Cordyceps
Habitat: On the plateau nematodes under the Huashan pine forest.

Through several investigations of Cordyceps resources, samples of different developmental stages of Cordyceps militaris were collected, and meteorological and transcriptomics were used to study the developmental biology of the high-grade Cordyceps militaris. A total of six stages of high-level Cordyceps sinensis live insects, zombies, early growth, sub-caps mature, sub-seat decay, and polymyxa were collected.

Through several investigations of Cordyceps resources, 5 species, 3 genera and 5 species were obtained, including Ophiocordyceps highlandensis, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps scarabaeicola, Polycephalomyces sp. 01 and Polycephalomyces sp. 02. The host has Lepidoptera, Scaragaeoidea larvae, which are mainly 55.54% of the Scarabaeoidea larvae.

Figure 3. Plateau Cordyceps and Cordyceps habitats

Through the investigation of the cordyceps sinensis resources in Yuming County, Kunming, it was found that the single vegetation of Huanming was Huashan forest, and the relative species of Cordyceps species was not high. There were 3 families, 3 genera and 5 species, and the dominant species of the highland Cordyceps sinensis were collected. Specimen materials from the period provided valuable experimental materials for subsequent research.